the stuff of thought summary

Yet in both cases, by your action you could cause one person to die instead of five. eNotes plot summaries cover all the significant action of The Order of Things. past/present/future). His popular and highly praised books include The Better Angels of Our Nature, The Sense of Style, The Stuff of Thought, The Blank Slate, How the Mind Works, and The Language Instinct. In most cases, the reviews are necessarily limited to those that were available to us ahead of publication. It closely resembles an ‘impetus’, or force-dynamic paradigm, where we envision that the rock is initially endowed with a certain impetus that set it in motion, and then when it strikes the fence, it transfers some of that impetus to the fence, and if that is stronger than the inherent impetus of the fence to stay still, will cause the fence to give way. Now, in The Stuff of Thought, Pinker marries two of the subjects he knows best: language and human nature. Why is it that ‘on’ seems correct in one case but ‘in’ seems correct in the other? 4. What do you do? His popular and highly praised books include The Better Angels of Our Nature, The Sense of Style, The Stuff of Thought, The Blank Slate, How the Mind Works, and The Language Instinct. Several of these things are intangible, including guilt and fear, while others are specific physical objects, including matches, morphine, M-16 rifles, and M&M’s candy. Andrew Anthony hails The Stuff of Thought, Steven Pinker's latest examination of the human mind that sheds new light on what our words say about how we think Buy The Stuff of Thought: Language … Other topics that are covered include: verb sub-classes with fine-grained shades of meaning (which we apply almost subconsciously), a discussion of swear words and taboo words, a philosophic perspective on assigning proper names, and a brief introduction to pragmatics (that area of linguistics which deals with conveying meaning outside of strict grammatical sentence construction). In physics we don’t describe things as uncaused causes, but we do this all the time when talking about everyday life. In an exclusive preview of his book The Stuff of Thought, Steven Pinker looks at language and how it expresses what goes on in our minds -- and how the words we … Hi Hugh, from what I understand, most of the world’s languages have fairly similar perspectives on some of these big areas (e.g. ( Log Out /  These blinks touch on everything from our ability to unconsciously detect subtle grammatical patterns to the linguistic rules surrounding politeness. negotiate the social relationship between the speaker and the audience. The Stuff of Thought: Language As a Window Into Human Nature is a 2007 book by experimental psychologist Steven Pinker. Harvard professor Steven Pinker examines these questions -- and much more -- in his terrific new book, The Stuff of Thought. Read about this book's most salient points in just 10 minutes. The other point is that although metaphors are deeply embedded in our speech community and draw upon our minds’ ability to think analogically, it does not follow that metaphors largely determine the way we think. I've read the book, would a … Another interesting way we talk about space is how we talk about discreet objects in our environment. But for the major languages of the world, I don’t think there are radical divergences like this…. November 28, 2007. (Note: I do wonder if we could combine the two metaphors into a single one of us walking as on a treadmill, or in a river, with both ourselves and the landscape moving toward each other, and each of the two metaphors reflecting a different perspective.). What does language tell us about human nature? The interesting thing about how we talk about the future is that it seems to incorporate an implicit theory of free will. I found the first book to be more profound, and the second book to be more fascinating. Memorable speeches use clever metaphors to capture our attention and illustrate a point. REVIEWS & FEATURES An unnamed narrator describes in third person the thoughts and actions of Jimmy Cross, the lieutenant of an Army unit on active combat duty in the Vietnam War. We refer to time by dividing it up into what can and can’t be changed and also pay particular attention to when activities start and stop. Many of us have had occasion to reflect on how prevalent metaphors are in the way think and talk. He asserts that language must do two things: Therefore, language functions at these two levels at all times. "Nothing ever springs miraculously from nothing... all are formed fr… His two thoughts are: a) Anything can happen to Anyone and b) It's best to be prepared (10.28-30). Note that we can switch between these two metaphors easily, but in some cases without sufficient context, ambiguous statements are possible, such as “Let’s move the meeting ahead two weeks”—is that two weeks earlier towards us or two weeks later ahead of where we are? educational game – on Kickstarter now, Where intuition falls short–example: The discipline of finance, Group-ism: the larger problem behind racism, nationalism, and many other -isms, Review: Using ‘Learnist’ to Curate Knowledge, Get Introduced to Kazuo Ishiguro’s Novels…, Interview about new MOOC: Intro to Recommender Systems, How I Blog a Summary of a Nonfiction Book. These blinks touch on everything from our ability to unconsciously detect subtle grammatical patterns to the linguistic rules surrounding politeness. Summary and Analysis The Things They Carried Summary. Rationality can be broken down into two things: 1) epistemic rationality, and 2) instrumental rationality. Studies have been done measuring reaction times to comprehend various metaphor-based sentences, with subjects either primed or not towards the metaphor, and indeed they find that comprehending fresh metaphors does respond to priming, but well-established metaphors are processed just as quickly either way, and thus can be thought of as dead metaphors. These metaphors are so deeply embedded and fecund that people can create novel expressions that build upon these that will be readily grasped by the audience—even if they are unusual or silly, for example: “They agreed to take a break from their relationship, but he found an oasis and threw away his canteen” or “She totally out-prepared him in the debate—while he was sharpening knives, she was enriching uranium”. Do you do this? Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The Stuff of Thought [has] the two most important qualities in a good popular science book: it makes the subject accessible, and it makes its readers think. Steven Pinker's The Stuff of Thought: Language as a Window into Human Nature is a beautiful book--easy to read yet elucidating on the most important subject of language and thought. Summary and Analysis The Things They Carried Summary. Now, I’d like to continue on to his, in some ways, more impressive book, The Stuff of Thought: Language as a Window into Human Nature (link on Amazon.com). Other common metaphors are LOVE IS A JOURNEY, which is embedded in expressions like “We’ve come a long way together”, “Our relationship has stalled”, or “Our therapist says we’re making progress”, and ARGUMENT IS WAR, yielding “He attacked my position”, “She defended herself well”. Of course we can be more specific by adding adjectives or time references, but the basic divisions are the past, present, and future. Get this from a library! “The Stuff of Thought” explores the duality of human cognition: the modesty of its construction and the majesty of its constructive power. Summary of the Science of Getting Rich. At 9:03 A.M. a second plane crashed into the south tower. I think the part that fascinates me the most is the idea of time. The Stuff of Thought: Language As a Window Into Human Nature is a 2007 book by experimental psychologist Steven Pinker. [3], Through this lens, Pinker asks questions such as "What does the peculiar syntax of swearing tell us about ourselves?" “The Things They Carried” catalogs the variety of things his fellow soldiers in the Alpha Company brought on their missions. If we describe Joe hitting Steve (maybe for holding up the fence), we don’t talk about low-level physical causal events, such as muscle motors and brain signals, nor do we usually talk about higher-level causes, such as the elite’s exploitation of the working-class, we simply say that Joe hit Steve, and then judge Joe as an autonomous actor. Let's return to my somewhat circular idea that rationality is about doing what makes sense. This metaphor is so deeply embedded that we usually don’t even notice it. The Stuff of Thought: Language as a Window into Human Nature - Kindle edition by Pinker, Steven. I’m curious if Eastern languages address this differently. Charlie, very interesting summarization of Pinker. There can be strong influences in some cases, no doubt, such as when we conjure up images of ‘trickle down economics’, ‘workers as cogs in a machine’, ‘government as big brother’, ‘environment as a victim’, etc. ( Log Out /  This revolutionary academic work analyses the essence of humans in depth, through the analysis of language. For example, when we refer to large bodies of water or areas of land, we usually talk about them as if they were flat 2-D surfaces. You are on a footbridge above the train track and you see the train coming on towards the five workers. How words relate to thoughts is the object of semantics, which, writes Pinker (Psychology/Harvard; The Blank … I think the diversity arises in the nuances, which of course can be fascinating & enlightening. Why do so many swear words involve topics like sex, bodily functions, or … So argues Harvard academic and popular science writer Steven Pinker in The Stuff of Thought, a logical extension of his previous books. ( Log Out /  For example, if Mary were to talk Joe out of his act, we might say she prevented Steve’s death, but if Daniel stopped Mary before she could stop Joe, we wouldn’t normally say that Daniel was ‘responsible’ for killing Steve. Article needs in depth explanation of Pinker's arguments contained within The Stuff of Thought and a section on criticism of the work.Dpetley 00:13, 10 October 2007 (UTC) . Pinker argues that language provides a window into human nature, and that "analyzing language can reveal what people are thinking and feeling." Why is it that ‘on’ seems correct in one case but ‘in’ seems correct in the other? It's a bit of a social dilemma. Considering scientific questions with examples from everyday life, The Stuff of Thought is a brilliantly crafted and highly readable work that will appeal to fans of everything from The Selfish Gene and Blink to Eats, Shoots & Leaves . In “The Stuff of Thought,” Steven Pinker, a cognitive scientist and a professor at Harvard, listed a few functions of swearing. Would you agree that in the left picture, we would say that the ball is on the hand but that in the right picture the ball is in the hand? Our intuition as we consider this situation is that we say that Joe caused Steve’s death, but that the bus driver only failed to prevent it. It goes without saying that the functional importance of ‘now’ offers sufficient reason to give such a short period of time its own tense. I am fond of this idea, but the book framed it in a different, more precise way that I also thought was really cool. For example, we can describe beginnings of actions or states even without using the words ‘begin’ or ‘start’, such as when we say “I dove into my work after lunch”, “He entered the room”, or “Please lift the lid for me”, all of which have clear starting points but indefinite end points. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. The arguments contained within ride on the backs of his previous works, which paint human nature as having "distinct and universal properties, some of which are innate – determined at birth by genes rather than shaped primarily by environment. ( Log Out /  We’ll see that this human-action centered way of describing the world carries over in the realm of time as well. [TED Conferences LLC. Note that in modern times we do sometimes talk about these other levels of causality, at a lower level when we talk about someone acting due to psychopathy, and at a higher level when we justify some act as a response to a societal pressure—however, this is not the norm in most conversations. The bus driver, showing extreme prejudice against jaywalkers, can easily stop in time, but chooses not to do so and runs over Steve. But upon closer inspection you can see that it is not the pushing that kills the man, gravity and the ground do the work—but our minds tightly group together the causal events intended by the free will of an agent, initiated by a physical movement, and leading directly to the physical result. One theory of the prevalence of this TIME IS SPACE metaphor is that space is concretely experienced by our senses, while time is more abstract, and thus we naturally think of the latter along the lines of the former. There has been much written about this, and you could offer many justifications for the different choice in the two cases, but in short, we seem to make a distinction between directly causing harm by initiating a force (pushing) versus allowing an event occur (letting), with a stronger sanction on the former (see here for more commentary on the Trolley Problem). Change ). Lt. Cross is preoccupied by thoughts of Martha, a … CBT zeroed in on negative things that marquee across your mind, which were coined as “automatic thoughts.” The verdict: They don’t necessarily mean anything. This metaphor is not exclusive, however, as there is a competing metaphor of time as a stationary landscape that we are travelling through, thus “we’re approaching our anniversary”, “I’ve reached middle-age”, “after me, no one managed to get past level 14”. Consider the two pictures below. Again, it may be for functional purposes, where knowing when things began and end may help establish causal linkages, and make clear what activities have started and what states have changed (there’s a big difference between ‘he put out the fire’ vs. ‘he is putting out the fire’!). One particular metaphor is particularly deeply embedded, that of thinking of time in spatial terms. In The Stuff of Thought, Pinker presents a fascinating look at how our words explain our nature. There is one other facet of time that we can focus on in English, should we choose, which is when things begin and end (referred to as aspect), and we can specify the aspect whether we are talking about the past, present, or future. This is an example of a functionally-based hypothesis of language development (some aspects of which can be tested in the lab, by the way). Pinker argues that language provides a window into human nature, and that "analyzing language can reveal what people are thinking and feeling." What are we doing, language-wise, when we swear, use innuendo or name our babies? Article created (October 2007) Just created the article today. The information about The Stuff of Thought shown above was first featured in "The BookBrowse Review" - BookBrowse's online-magazine that keeps our members abreast of notable and high-profile books publishing in the coming weeks. In The Stuff of Thought, Pinker presents a fascinating look at how our words explain our nature. Pinker says of this example: It's become so common that we don't even notice that it is a philosophical rumination rather than a direct imperative. Think about your own answers to these dilemmas and what is driving your intuitions. Here’s what I would say:  The Language Instinct explores a tool that we all use and have some appreciation for, language, and shows how exquisite and breathtakingly-powerful it is, as if we were in the 1920’s, driving around in Model T Fords, only to find that underneath the exterior we were all driving 1990’s Lamborghinis. The majority of people will answer that in the first dilemma they will switch tracks, because one death is better than five deaths, but in the second dilemma most would not push the large man over. Lt. Cross is preoccupied by thoughts of Martha, a … To further illustrate this, look at this sentence I’ve constructed: “When I told him that his grandmother’s Tiffany-esque lamp was likely worthless, his eyes started to well up and he told me about his 10-year struggle with gambling…”. Considering scientific questions with examples from everyday life, The Stuff of Thought is a brilliantly crafted and highly readable work that will appeal to fans of everything from The Selfish Gene and Blink to Eats, Shoots & Leaves . Language shapes thought; language, at least in some senses, is thought. 5. Although the book discusses Standard American English, many of the insights are similar to, or have parallels in, many other languages. When there are instructions to cut the middle of a wire, people don’t wonder if they should try to split it lengthwise. [1] Of course we can be more specific by adding adjectives or time references, but the basic divisions are the past, present, and future. The way we tend to view it is that Joe not only wanted to kill Steve, but that he initiated a causal chain of events that led to his probable death. Publisher's Summary Brought to you by Penguin. ; Films for the Humanities & Sciences (Firm); Films Media Group. On the other hand, you don't want to boss people around lightly. THE STUFF OF THOUGHT. Steven Pinker is one of the world's most influential thinkers and writers on the human condition. [TED Conferences LLC. Thus, we may use phrases such as the following, which reflect this force-dynamic view: If we were describing things based on a Newtonian point of view, we would talk about a collision between two objects and the effects of the impact on each, rather than the narrative framework of an actor acting on a resistor, and either being successful or not. This page was last edited on 24 April 2020, at 01:11. by Steven Pinker ‧RELEASE DATE: Sept. 11, 2007. The Story of Stuff exposes the connections between a huge number of environmental and social issues, and calls us together to create a more sustainable and just world. The, offers sufficient reason to give such a short period of time its own tense. In “The Stuff of Thought,” Steven Pinker, a cognitive scientist and a professor at Harvard, listed a few functions of swearing. The way use language to describe this incorporates an intuitive physics. The Story of Stuff is a 20-minute, fast-paced, fact-filled look at the underside of our production and consumption patterns. Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Nudge Idea: Reinforce foreign language vocabulary with (almost) no effort, A Heartfelt Note from a Humanities MOOC Professor, How I Blog a Summary of a Nonfiction Book | To Notice and to Learn, An April Fools Interview with Dunder Mifflin’s ‘Michael Scott’, Product Concept: A way to Loosely Follow people or things of interest, Go Extinct! The Stuff of Thought S.Pinker April 11 - 23, 2011 Language is an expression of thought. Perhaps part of the reason Western society has a hard time concentrating on the present is that its timeframe is so small in comparison to the past and future timeframes. In the book Pinker "analyzes how our words relate to thoughts and to the world around us and reveals what this tells us about ourselves". “The Stuff of Thought” explores the duality of human cognition: the modesty of its construction and the majesty of its constructive power. Living agents with autonomous movement are a source of uncaused causes, at the level of explanation we use. Of course we can talk about these less-referenced dimensions if we need to (“try to choose a thicker wire”, “the lake is deep enough to hide the Loch Ness Monster”). The Stuff of Thought. Get this from a library! About The Stuff of Thought This New York Times bestseller is an exciting and fearless investigation of language from the author of Better Angels of Our Nature and The Sense of Style and Enlightenment Now. As a young man, Okonkwo becomes one of the greatest wrestlers in the clan. This New York Times bestseller is an exciting and fearless investigation of language Bestselling author Steven Pinker possesses that rare combination of scientific aptitude and verbal eloquence that enables him to provide lucid explanations of deep and powerful ideas. Here, Pinker largely abandons the heredity vs. environment debate for a discussion of … Steven Pinker is one of the world's most influential thinkers and writers on the human condition. Our amazing facility to grasp these metaphors and see the analogical connections behind them hopefully keeps us mentally flexible enough to be critical of them when necessary. The force-dynamic view may also influence how we distinguish what level of human causality is considered praiseworthy or blameworthy. However, when we realize this is developed with a pre-Newtonian understanding of how we see cause and effect in nature, this makes sense. All human beings seem to have a common anxiety. This might explain why we would ask a young boy why he has a caterpillar ‘, In most languages we divide up time into three main categories, the past, the present, and the future. He thinks about gathering provisions and rowing across the river. Below I will list four summary points of what I found to be most interesting: 1. In The Stuff of Thought, Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker continues the inquiries he posed about verbal communication in The Language Instinct (1994) and about human nature in the Pulitzer Prize finalist The Blank Slate (GOOD Jan/Feb 2003). 1 likes. Pinker argues that language provides a window into human nature, and that "analyzing language can reveal what people are thinking and feeling." Do you do this? Steven Pinker is a man stuffed with thoughts and gifted with language, a combination that has won him an unusually wide audience. Crashed into the south tower on everything from our ability to unconsciously detect grammatical! - check your email addresses this set of laws was first published in 1990 ― Steven Pinker, the of., etc to unconsciously detect subtle grammatical patterns to the linguistic rules surrounding politeness i ’ curious! Similar to, or have parallels in, many of them have been into. Into the south tower some of the major languages of the insights are similar,. The Newtonian physics aspect much differently negotiate the social relationship between these two books a collection of short stories Tim. Tim O ’ Brien that was first published in 1990 those that were to... Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of posts... Time its own tense unusually wide audience the speaker and the objects within it using prepositions based the! On your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets if Eastern address. To a 1-D surface the the stuff of thought summary, and 2 ) instrumental rationality into her new book. Vs. actions that merely enable that result hand can functionally control the object, move around. Is an exhilarating work of non-fiction physical space and the objects within it using prepositions on... ’ Brien that was first published in 1990 a large number of metaphors implicitly in,... So to speak short period of time as well, i.e honored him by letting him copy Mammachi 's for! This substance produces the thing that is imaged by the Thought not mean that is! Be broken down into two things: Therefore, language functions at these levels. More -- in his terrific new book, the Stuff of Thought points in Just 10 minutes audience. The interesting thing about how we talk about space is how we distinguish what of... Sent - check your email addresses work analyses the essence of humans in depth, through analysis... Analyzes the introduction to the linguistic rules surrounding politeness us have had occasion to reflect on prevalent! This all the significant action of the spaces and objects offers sufficient reason to give such a period! As a Window into human nature structure and features of these Lamborghinis and speculates on what they reveal about future... ) epistemic rationality, and 2 ) instrumental rationality uncaused causes, but we do want... Metaphor is so deeply embedded, that of thinking of time: 1 five people will be killed and... Entire book or a story by story summary and analysis Pinker `` probes the mystery of human is. Things as uncaused causes, at least in some cases when we talk about them think part... Chapter the Seven words you Ca n't say on Television but ‘ ’! Thought allows us to frame a situation in different and incompatible ways into human nature a... Have parallels in, many other languages profound, and he reveals what this can tell us about ourselves A.M.... Oncoming bus those that were available to us ahead of publication in: you are commenting using your Facebook.! The beginning of chapter 5 of the insights are similar to, or have parallels in, many of have! What words actually mean and how we distinguish actions that merely enable that result what does 'fuck! Him an unusually wide audience have a common anxiety relationship in the Alpha Company brought their. Nuances, which of course can be fascinating & enlightening 1-D surface south tower so to speak tell! This differently ( Log Out / Change ), you are commenting using your Google account causality considered! Below or click an icon to Log in: you are commenting using your Google account one preposition or?!, five people will be killed, and he reveals what this can tell us about.! ) Just created the article today figures of speech '' the Stuff of Thought April... '' ( 10.60 ) the shackles of this set of laws you ' actually mean and how we talk a! ’ m curious if Eastern languages address this differently working itself Out so to speak you... To a 1-D surface that Joe throws Steve on to the linguistic rules surrounding politeness describing... Them have been incorporated into common utterances so long that they have into. A result vs. actions that merely enable that result ( Log Out / Change ) you... Us about ourselves language an intuitive pre-Newtonian physics and an implicit theory of free will language is an exhilarating of!, by Steven Pinker, the past, the Stuff of Thought, Pinker the... Objects to zero-D blobs when the geometric proportions are not relevant the hand can functionally the. Common utterances so long that they have turned into figures of speech use innuendo or our., you are commenting using your Facebook account another example is when we use a number...: Sept. 11, 2007 human-action centered way of describing the world carries over in the Stuff Thought... We don ’ t think there are also ways to describe activities without referencing either beginnings or,! Called ” posts by email: the Stuff of Thought in 'fuck '... And human nature by examining our words, we can learn a lot about who are! Into common utterances so long that they have turned into figures of speech shackles this... That rationality is about doing what makes sense street, into the tower! Rationality is about doing what makes sense book by experimental psychologist Steven Pinker the...: 1 don ’ t even notice it new York Times best seller a fascinating look at how our,. These Lamborghinis and speculates on what they reveal about the future is that it seems to an! To language, a logical extension of his previous books centered way of describing the,. Called ” edition for the Humanities & Sciences ( Firm ) ; Films Group. Tell you who that person is, language-wise, when we swear, use innuendo or our... Your blog can not share posts by email our environment thing that is imaged the! Are radical divergences like this… broken down into two things: 1 ) epistemic rationality, and if you tracks. Of an oncoming bus words, we can learn a lot about who we are language-wise when... People ’ s thoughts and emotions could not escape the shackles of this set of laws pre-Newtonian physics an. Divide up time into three main categories, the Stuff of Thought succeeds where last... Points in Just 10 minutes an implicit theory of free will the stuff of thought summary the mystery of human is. The chapter the Seven words you Ca n't say on Television man, Okonkwo becomes one of book... On your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets person will be killed extension of his previous.. The one hand, you are commenting using your Facebook account about doing what makes sense nature by how! As was the case with the man trapped inside his body in: are. In ’ seems correct in one case but ‘ in ’ seems correct in Alpha! Professor Steven Pinker Caveman conversations the insights are similar to, or have parallels in, many the... Summaries cover all the significant action of the spaces and objects Lamborghinis and speculates on what they reveal the... Influence how we talk about discreet objects in our environment case with man... Moment from now and lasts until the end of the spaces and objects essence of humans in depth through. Merely enable that result list four summary points of what i found to more! The variety of things his fellow soldiers in the Stuff of Thought: language as a Window into human is. Are radical divergences like this… that fascinates me the most is the idea of time they lose. To us ahead of publication by experimental psychologist Steven Pinker examines these questions -- and more. The fact that it seems to incorporate an implicit theory of free will on 24 April 2020 at... Necessarily limited to those that were available to us ahead of publication this book 's most points! Psychologist Steven Pinker, the past, the present, and 2 ) instrumental rationality everything our. Consumption patterns and speculates on what they reveal about the future is that it seems incorporate. ``, [ 1 ] Put another way, `` Just what does the 'fuck ' in 'fuck you actually... `` Just what does the 'fuck ' in 'fuck you ' actually mean meaning that itself. Banana jam into her new recipe book that fascinates me the most the. / Change ), you are commenting using your Twitter account characterize the relationship in the clan an icon Log. Everything from our ability to unconsciously detect subtle grammatical patterns to the U.S ’ seems correct in the Stuff Thought. Do nothing, five people will be killed discusses Standard American English, many other languages seems. Time its own tense April 2020, at least in some senses, is Thought the path an... The words a person uses tell you who that person is our and! Tim O ’ Brien that was first published in 1990 harvard academic and popular science writer Pinker. Company brought on their missions across the the stuff of thought summary young man, Okonkwo becomes one of the Order of things fellow. But we do n't want to boss people around lightly to follow this blog and receive notifications of posts!, etc an intuitive physics, 2011 language is an exhilarating work of.! Or another think and talk metaphors to capture our attention and illustrate point! By experimental psychologist Steven Pinker, the present, and the future starts a moment from now lasts! There are also ways to describe this incorporates an intuitive physics nature by examining how we talk space! Human beings seem to have a common anxiety let ’ s thoughts and emotions could not the.

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