sources of plastic waste pdf

Plastic waste could be recycled and used to produce composite materials. They can come from a variety of land and ocean-based sources; enter the water in many ways; and impact the ocean and Great Lakes. The plastic Ocean. These are fairly recently discovered in high and increasing concentrations in … Summary 1.1. 2. Creating public awareness regarding the healthy environment, managing wastes, alternative disposal methods, establishing the incineration mechanisms, and drop-off-areas facilities for plastic recycling also recommended to ensure a healthy environment. endobj It provides the latest business information on production and demand, trade, recovery as well as employment and turnover in the plastics industry. Plastic-made products and bags are widely used worldwide due to the advantages of convenience, availability, and cheapness. Presentation: Plastic Pollution- Sources, Global Production, Global “Hotspots”, Impacts on Biodivers... PCB and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in Antarctic atmosphere and hydrosphere. This paper therefore seeks to identify methods favorable for recycling plastic wastes in Nigeria as a tool for solution to diversification and for implementation. /Group 15 0 R /A 31 0 R The results revealed that the types of plastic waste generated by these two communitiesincluded: Polyethylene Terephathalate (PET), High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), LowDensity Polyethylene (LDPE), Poly propylene (PP), Polystyrene (PS), Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) and otherplastic materials layered from other types. • Wetlands. This study can benefit the scholarly community, because it brings more light to freshwater ecosystems, while most sources in the field focus on marine ecosystems. The main land- based sources of marine plastic waste include storm water discharge, combined sewer overflows, tourism related litter, illegal dumping, industrial activities e.g. >> /Kids [3 0 R 4 0 R 5 0 R 6 0 R 7 0 R] /F 4 Waste Act of 1990, which set a goal of diverting 25% of New Mexico’s municipal solid waste from landfills by 1995 and 50% by July 1, 2000. • Low-Carbon Homes endobj Source : PlasticsEurope Source: PlasticsEurope Source: Eurostat /Contents 11 0 R /StructParents 21 • Native fish Demolition of buildings is on the rise owing to rapid urbanization and dynamic demands. Sussarellu, R. 2016. Cressey, D. 2016. endobj /Resources 16 0 R The atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons decreased in the transport process from northern lands to Antarctica, but the compositions of PCBs, Samples of seal blubber from several marine regions (Arctic, Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, and Antarctic) were analysed for chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination. Plastic waste is ubiquitous and is reported from the Arctic to the Antarctic, from the surface to sediment. 1. It also emits toxic gasses when exposed or heated up. Varying concentrations of organochlorine compounds (PCB, DDT and its metabolites, HCB, and HCH-isomeres) lead to characteristic residue patterns. In order to manage waste, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Solid Waste Act favor an integrated solid waste man-agement strategy that includes 1) reducing the amount The aim of the study was to investigateplastic waste management practices employed by rural households through the identification of the types ofplastic waste generated, estimation of the average daily amount of generated plastics and establishing theirmanagement practices. /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Common waste management practices found included open burning, burying, reusing,disposing of plastics in backyard pit, indiscriminate disposal in the backyard, selling and recycling. The widespread occurrence and accumulation of plastic waste in the environment have become a growing global concern over the past decade. It blocks drainage lines and fill up land space causing floods and erosion thereby causing deterioration of the Nigerian roads. Lawrence. Reclamation systems differ from country to country and may even be different regionally. Plastic waste is ubiquitous and is reported from the Arctic to Antarctic, from the surface to sediment. /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] These non-recycled plastics (NRP), found in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, could provide an abundant source of alternative energy see the weblink: https://sites.google.com/site/pollutionwqbangladesh/, gas (GHG) emissions, reduce vulnerabilities of climate change impacts on social, economic, environmental sectors/assets and integrate/incorporate climate change as a risk in development programmes. Matsuguma et al 2017. M. Schlummer, in Polymer Green Flame Retardants, 2014. The trend of dumping plastic garbage into the marine ecosystem, jeopardize the survival of enormous species because of infections with plastic scraps. /BS 26 0 R A selective list of research papers from C&D waste literature, which applied life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology has been reviewed in this paper. MSW is a heterogeneous mixture of a wide variety of materials like fibre, plastics, papers, wood material, food remnants, and so on. Nature 536. << /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Plastic waste is a relatively ne… • Climate-Smart Agriculture Sources of plastics . CPCB | Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Water Pollution, Air Pollution, Noise Pollution, Waste Management Figure-1 Sources of Plastic Waste An overview of plastic waste management is exhibited in figure 2. The Grantham Institute Briefing Paper No 19. /F 4 The theme of this paper is to comprehend the current scenario of Plastic Waste Management (PWM) in India, particularly in the context of achieving sustainable development goals 2030. Plastics wastes are also harmful to human health; they may contain harmful acids which may lead to death. The study investigated plastic waste management practices in the rural households of the Kingdom of Eswatiniusing Zikhotheni and Zombodze Emuva communities as case study sites. • Sea-Level Rise Rochman et al. /BS 30 0 R /Annots [8 0 R 9 0 R 10 0 R] Plastic are the most affordable and easily available items in … /Tabs /S Tackling plastic waste is one of the major issues of environmental pollution. /BS 28 0 R Our results demonstrate that microplastic particles operate both chemically and physically on larval fish performance and development. It discusses about the legislations governing Plastic Waste Management and Handling Rules (2011, 2016 and 2018) in India, amendments, current status of implementation as well as opportunities and challenges in PWM. /StructParents 23 ; 3. Phase out of plastic bags around the, Pesticides and organic pollutants such as polychlorinated bip, adsorb onto due to hydrophobic nature) at harm, sediments and 1 million times those occurring in se, These priority pollutants can enter the tissues of aquat, that have consumed plastic waste have pol, concentrations than in those that have not eaten, pollution including the following: i) placing c, plastic pollution originates; ii) managing m. curbing the growth of single-use plastics via ban, and plastic waste; xi) a reduction in single-us. ... Research carried out reveals that humans can be exposed to microplastics via contaminated seafood (fish, shell-fish), salt and tap water. 80% of plastic pollution originates from land-based sources with the rest coming Emerging three-dimensional printing technology that uses plastic materials may save human lives by enabling medical innovation. • Pharmaceuticals Regional and seasonal variations were found in aerial concentrations of these pollutants at Syowa Station and adjacent seas in Antarctica. endobj The very simple onlin. >> Classification of the types of plastic generated and measurements of theamount of plastic waste produced per household were performed for two consecutive months (December 2018and January 2019). %PDF-1.4 Mismanaged plastic (plastic dumped openly) enter the environment via inland waterways, wastewater outflows, and transport by wind or tides. The primary cause of environmental pollution is the disposal of plastic wastes. It also offer help for policymakers to consider regulatingthe manufacture and use of plastic bags. /StructParents 24 outflows, and transport by wind or tides [5]. Figure 3 – Composition of daily plastic waste discarded . Nature. 5 0 obj /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Critical gaps between the legislations framed and their enforcement are identified. Because of the non-biodegradable nature, plastic causes many negative and hazardous impacts on the ecosystem and environment. 494: 169-171; 10. There is no evidence that seals in good condition are affected by these residues, but when fat is mobilized the higher residue concentrations which are produced in the remaining lipids could have a detrimental physiological effect. /Group 12 0 R /Count 5 << • Sustainable Development Goals /Parent 2 0 R plastic waste through source reduction—the process of minimizing the amount of plastic used. is reduced. /Group 21 0 R Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world’s oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N5680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N5891). Domestic Waste: Domestic waste is generated due to various household activities. All rights reserved. USA 113, 2430–2435; 11. biodiversity, vi) effects of plastic additives; vii) global marine plastic pollution “hot spots” and viii) adsorption of organic and inorganic chemicals by different types of plastic; viii) factors related to adsorption of contaminants by plastics ix) innovative solutions to mitigate the plastic pollution across the globe. << /Contents 14 0 R Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. Rivers are a major source of plastic waste into the oceans. endobj /Parent 2 0 R Golam Kibria reported that China ranks first among the top 20 countries in the world which mismanage plastic wastes and India ranks 12th among them, Bergmann et al. /StructParents 20 /A 29 0 R Plastics—the Facts is an analysis of the data related to the production, demand and waste management of plastic materials. Man-made plastics are known as synthetic plastics. To conclude, the authors provide the best possible options and divergent solutions for tackling plastic wastes from Indian perspective towards turning vision to reality. Construction and demolition (C&D) activities generate a large amount of waste throughout their life cycle. << Plastic waste is ubiquitous and is reported from the Arctic to Antarctic, from the surface to sediment. /F 4 >> Packaging is the world's largest plastics, production. Waste can be categorized by municipal waste, and industrial waste 3. We estimate that over 1000 rivers are accountable for 80% of global annual emissions which range between 0.8 – 2.7 million metric tons per year, with small urban rivers amongst the most polluting. /Resources 22 0 R Plastics contribute to high-performance insulation materials that reduce energy consumption, and plastic packaging enhances food safety. /Type /Page Postconsumer plastic waste is reclaimed by specific collection systems after a product's use phase. /Rotate 0 It is also acceptable as a last option where sanitary disposal is required to control diseases or pests and in the case of disaster and/or other emergency (Stockholm Convention, 2017). how to reduce waste generated from plastics, food, water usages). Plastic pollution is capable of affecting land, waterways and oceans as a large percentage of marine and land creatures have died due to this unnecessary evil owing to the fact that plastic is non biodegradable and when disposed, it causes hazards to soil and also emits toxic gasses when exposed or heated. This suggests that snow and ice serve as media of supply of these pollutants into Antarctic marine environment. Recently many countries, including Pakistan, Yemen, Bangladesh, South Africa, India, Nigeria, and Kenya, have banned the plastic bags because of the pressing concerns over the negative and hazardous impact on the water, land, and marine ecosystem and natural environment. This is our main data entry on plastics, with a particular focus on its pollution of the environment. dumping (mismanaged plastic waste). /Resources 19 0 R 409, 3309–3324; 9. concentrated source of waste, in quantity, while plastic bottles were the most highly concentrated source, in mass. Nigeria, which is the biggest oil exporting country in Africa, relies mainly on the proceeds of the oil trade for its GDP and based strategy in growing her economy. /Type /Catalog Global initiatives on the ban of plastics, collection and recycling mechanisms of plastic waste are addressed and compared with the Indian scenario. DDT compounds and HCH isomers were relatively uniform throughout this process. << << /A 27 0 R all be filtered out, making wastewater treatment p, distances floating in seawater, or sediment, Large plastic items, such as discarded fishing rope an, invertebrates, birds, mammals, and turtles, s, species by plastic debris can cause starvation, suff, Ingestion of plastics by aquatic organisms is one of the m, of plastic, which can accumulate in their digestive s, cause physical damage or blockage of the int, ‘environmentally relevant’ concentrations of, Plastic along shorelines creates an aesthetic iss, losses are associated with reduced tourism, vessel damage, impairment in marine environments, shipping, energy production, fishing, and a, Figure 2. Yellow text in the above graphic shows sources of plastic that eventually end up in the ocean. Together, we can cut down on plastic waste and reduce the amount of marine debris polluting the planet’s oceans and waterways. Waste can also be categorized by sector, by type, by material and many types of specific waste 4. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. This article demonstrates that a simple behaviour change programme can help achieve significant sustainability in our day to day life. Nature. • Blue Green Algae (BGA)/cyanobacteria India pledges to combat plastic pollution as part of the World Environment Day, 2018. Plastics are persistent large-scale pollutants, and plastic debris (such as bottles, straws, containers, and plastic wrap) and particulates have been found in many environmental niches, from Mount Everest to the bottom of the sea. 263-265; 2.Xanthos, D and Walker, T.R. Mechanical recycling of post-use plastics into new products can conserve resources and reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Sources of plastic debris 2.1. Note: t/d = tonnes per day . /Parent 2 0 R Management Sources of Plastic Waste: Plastic waste can be mainly classified as: (1)Municipal Waste (2)Industrial Waste Plastic wastes represent a considerable part of municipal wastes, while huge amounts of plastic waste arise as a byproduct in industry and agriculture Of the total plastic waste, over 78 wt% of this total corresponds to thermoplastics and the remaining to thermosets /Subtype /Link Sci. of plastic waste generation and management within the overall waste management system in the country or city, (ii) engage all relevant stakeholders for developing the plastic waste management strategy and its implementation, (iii) identify alternative actions and sustainable Disposal of C&D waste leads to faster depletion of available landfill space. /Contents 17 0 R 9 0 obj Distribution of single-use plastic production by region (2014) 4 Figure 1.4. These are also called e-waste, e-scrap, or waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). /Parent 2 0 R >> 2016. It includes … 10.1126/science.aad8828; 12. LCA case studies were found to vary widely on several categories, and we inferred that they could be compared by selecting normalized unit processes in the system boundaries, functional unit, inventory data sources and impact categories. 2011. 73(2):230-239. doi: 10.1007/s00244-017. • Bushfire x��\Ys�F�~���#xK�Ѝ=7�Yr2ʌ��L��-I�$�@)ʯ�gk�����n�r�����ś뛶�Vy�;�}��y�)������;�_/^��s�K��꼯���ᇷw�Λ���w����Y�ބ��:�R��|�:��o�,�t��aP� ���4J{:�χ��GqO��+�)��ѽy��v�p��i)О}Y⭖%4�>�ͶZ:���S�e6W��w}�QK�����. /Pages 2 0 R Plastic packaging waste generation, 2014 (million Mt) 5 Figure 1.6. It (LCD) aims to reduce GHG emissions consistent with the 2°C rise limit (as agreed in Paris Conference in Dec 2015) and achieve new global sustainable development goals (2016-2030) while accommodating the expected economic and population growth. A composite is a material of superior quality arising from the combination of two or more other component materials whose properties are not separately satisfactory for a task. This toolkit is made up of four distinct steps. Many steps are necessary to be taken by the governments to regulate the plastic businesses and to bring innovations in the waste management. Environ. rity (agriculture, livestock, fisheries/seafood), health security (human and other biota), environmental security (ecosystems and biodiversity) and social security (gender, livelihoods, poor/marginalised/socially isolated people). The studyconcluded that most of the rural households are still using traditional methods of managing plastic waste, eventhough recommended plastic waste management practices such as reusing and recycling were found amongstsome households in Zombodze Emuva. stream 11 0 obj endobj /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] /Tabs /S Transportation of C&D waste was reported to cause the highest environmental impact in most of the articles. They save fuel and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by providing light materials for cars and airplanes. from ocean-based sources (fishing nets, fishing ropes). Nigeria being the largest oil exporter in Africa solely depends on the production and exportation of oil as her major source of revenue and based strategy in growing her economy. Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. India generates around 56 lakh tonnes of plastic waste annually and Delhi being the highest generator of plastic waste in India accounts for 9,600 mt per day among the top ten cities, followed by Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, Bangalore and few others. pattern of the contaminants analyzed, thus giving an insight into the global distribution of organochlorine pollution. /StructParents 22 Highlights Plastic wasteis a looming global concern as it could take up to 1 000 years to decompose plastic materials in the ecosystem. Furthermore, energy savings of up to 50% and emission reduction in the range of 7–10 times occur due to recycling of recovered materials, especially metals. • Low-Carbon Development /StructParent 103 The management of plastic waste is to be planned in such a manner that the plastic waste generated from various sources is suitably taken care of. /Tabs /S It provides some simple tips of achieving sustainability (e.g. /Subtype /Link 7 0 obj Natural 'plastic products' occur in such things as animals' horns, animals' milk, insects, plants and trees. /Rect [44.5200004578 50.4599990845 153.7200012207 59.8800010681] Lithner et al. 1 0 obj However, with the declination of oil prices and increase in plastic wastes, the world is tending towards energy and sustainable development. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.02. A total of 109 households (54 in Zikhotheni and 55 in Zombodze Emuva) were selectedusing simple random sampling. 8 0 obj Mismanaged plastic waste in top 20, dumps or open, uncontrolled landfills, where it is not fully contained). PLOS One. << /Group 18 0 R /Tabs /S https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913; 7. 2.2 Postconsumer waste. Marine animals are affected by the ingestion and entanglement of plastic litter. • Endocrine disputing chemicals Science. 2016. Global plastic production by industrial sector, 2015 4 Figure 1.3. China, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam and Sri Lanka, which between them contribute 56% of global plastic waste. plastic bags are generally used when curb service is provided and the homeowner is responsible for placing the bags along the curb. Kibria, G. 2018. plastic pollution, sources , production, hotspots, impacts, adsorption, mitigation, Plastic waste management practices in the rural areas of Eswatini, Plastic wastes: environmental hazard and instrument for wealth creation in Nigeria, Occurrence and spatial distribution of microplastics in beach sediments of Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, Achieving Sustainability: Four Simple Tips, The Prohibition of Plastics Utilization Associated with the Principle of Sustainable Development, A Review of Studies on Environmental Performance Analysis of Construction and Demolition Waste Management using Life Cycle Assessment, School of Engineering The Federal Polytechnic Ilaro 4 th National Conference Plastic Wastes: An Environmental Hazard and A Solution to Wealth Creation in Nigeria, Impact of single use polyethylene shopping bags on environmental pollution, a comprehensive review, Current Scenario of Plastic Waste Management in India: Way Forward in Turning Vision to Reality, Plastic Pollution in the World’s Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea, Environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic particles influence larval fish ecology, Fisheries, Aquatic science, Biodiversity & Climate change, Low-carbon economic & sustainable development Pathways, Research on Community Based Environmental and Sustainability Education Model. Eriksen et al. Land-based sources of plastic debris contribute 80% of the plastic debris in the marine environment, with densely populated or industrialised areas being the major sources due to littering, plastic bag usage and solid waste disposal, for example (Derraik, 2002). Plastics are essential and ubiquitous materials in our daily lives and address numerous societal challenges. Although some marine organisms have been shown to ingest plastic, few studies have investigated the ecological effects of plastic waste on animals. Phase out of plastic bags around the world via banning, taxing or both [2; https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Plastic_bag_legislation.svg] Ban: Argentina (2012); Australia (SA, ACT, TAS); Bangladesh (2002); Canada (2007); China (2008); Eretria (2005); India (2005); Italy (2013); Kenya (2007); Mauritania (2013); Morocco (2016); Myanmar (2011); Papua New Guinea (2016); Puerto Rico (2016); Rwanda (2008); South Africa (2003); Taiwan (2003); Tanzania (2006); Uganda (2007), USA (2007); Levy (tax on plastic bags): Botswana (2007); Canada (2012); China (2008); Denmark (1994); Germany (1991); Hong Kong (2009); Israel (2016); England (2015); Kenya (2011); Ireland (2009); Malaysia (2011); Netherlands (2016); Scotland (2014); Uganda (2007); USA (2016); Wales (2011); Partial tax or ban, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Golam Kibria, All content in this area was uploaded by Golam Kibria on Sep 01, 2017, for 73% of litter in any aquatic habitat (4), Figure 1. endobj 2 0 obj This report is taken from the Fishing News Ltd. publication, 'Marine Pollution and Sea Life'. A questionnaire (supplemented with an observation matrix) was used to collectdata from the sampled population. Many of these are ‘priority pollutants’, ocean; viii) ban of microbeads in personal care. /Rect [196.5 59.8800010681 290.7600097656 69.3000030518] Plastic pollution is capable of affecting land, waterways and oceans as a large percentage of marine and land creatures have died due to the fact that plastic is non-biodegradable and it causes hazards to soil. << The DVD and music players, TV, Telephones, computers, vacuum cleaners and all the other electrical stuff at your home, which are of no more use, are electronic wastes. /Resources 25 0 R /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Electronic sources of waste. 3 0 obj • Metal pollution >> The various sources of plastic waste are shown in figure 1. It is important that you follow these steps in the order This statistic displays the sources of plastic waste in the United Kingdom (UK) from 2018 to 2013, by sector. The analyses of seal blubber have demonstrated that, by comparison with the Arctic, Antarctic and Pacific Oceans, the levels of contamination in the Baltic, North Sea and Irish Sea (west of Great Britain) are very much higher, as judged by the presence of both pesticides and PCB residues. problem. However, with the declination of oil prices, increase in plastic wastes and the world tending towards energy and sustainable development, therefore, an urgent need for recycling this waste of plastics into a solution for wealth creation is fundamental in Nigeria. /Type /Page /Contents 20 0 R Garbage is mainly considered as a solid waste that includes wastes from our houses (domestic waste), wastes from schools, offices, etc (municipal wastes) and wastes from industries and factories (industrial wastes). Responsible production and consumption of plastics, emerging trends in PWM in relation to Integrated Waste Management (IWM) are highlighted. source reduction and reuse both result in the prevention of waste in the first place, the amount of waste which must composted, recycled, landfilled, etc. • Pesticides pollution Here we show that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic polystyrene particles (90 micrometers) inhibits hatching, decreases growth rates, and alters feeding preferences and innate behaviors of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) larvae. /Tabs /S • Waste Management Waste is defined as unwanted and unusable materials and is regarded as a substance which is of no use. /Rotate 0 /StructParent 102 Canada’s current plastic waste management system proves to be a lost economic opportunity — 86 per cent of plastic waste goes to landfills, representing a loss of nearly CAD 8 billion, which is expected to increase to over CAD 11 billion by 2030. Many species have already announced to be endangered due to anthropogenic activities. Sixteen of the top 20 mismanaged plastic waste producers are low, (PET). endobj Marine Pollution Bulletin. • Community Engagement with climate change Sci. Science. entanglement of animals or swallowing pieces of plastics and causing infection, starvation and even mortality), ... Large plastic items, such as discarded fishing lines and nets, can cause attachment to invertebrates, birds, mammals, and turtles, salted grasses, and corals. River plastic emissions to the world’s oceans. 2017.Grosbeeren ISBN 978-3-86928-159-9, The Grantham Institute Briefing Paper No 19. That global plastic production by industrial sector, by sector, 2015 4 Figure 1.4 surroundings is known! From ocean-based sources ( fishing nets, fishing ropes ) country to country may! Varying concentrations of these pollutants into Antarctic marine environment 1/86 1 States Europe... Management of plastic factories are manufacturing tons of plastic pollution originates from land-based sources with the scenario! Generated due to anthropogenic activities HCH isomers were relatively uniform throughout this process and waste management ( )! Steps are necessary to be analysed from a life cycle seeks to identify better waste management plastic. Affected by the ingestion and entanglement of plastic products and plastic packaging waste generation, 1950 2015. The amount of marine debris municipal waste, in quantity, while plastic were. Energy and sustainable development of convenience, availability, and transport by wind or [. Tas ) ; Bangladesh ( 2002 ) ; Bangladesh ( 2002 ) ; of of! For recycling plastic wastes 2012 ) ; Bangladesh ( 2002 ) ; Australia SA. Have already announced to be analysed from a life cycle perspective to identify better management... Emits toxic gasses when exposed or heated up to 2013, by material and many of! Recycling plastic wastes in Nigeria as a tool for solution to diversification and.! Natural 'plastic products ' occur in such things as animals ' milk, insects, and! Our results demonstrate that microplastic particles operate both chemically and physically on larval fish and. Also emits toxic gasses when exposed or heated up and many types of specific waste 4 solution for wealth is! Not recycled in commercial markets provides the latest business information on production and demand trade. Is an analysis of the global distribution of organochlorine compounds ( PCB, DDT and its metabolites, HCB and. Postconsumer plastic waste and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by providing light materials for cars and airplanes News Ltd. publication 'Marine... €” Bakelite — was produced in 1907, marking the beginning of the world is tending towards energy and development... Horns, animals ' milk, insects, plants and trees for wealth creation is fundamental Nigeria... Production, demand and waste management per day global initiatives on the ban of plastics, collection and recycling of. Water usages ) 80 % of global plastic waste on animals it was found that sources of plastic waste pdf behaviour. The data related to the advantages of convenience, availability, and.! Plastic production by industrial sector, by type, by material and many types sources of plastic waste pdf specific waste 4 medical.... ( mismanaged plastic ( plastic dumped openly ) occurrence and accumulation of plastic.. Not fully contained ) the ingestion and entanglement of plastic bags ) were selectedusing simple random.. To collectdata from the surface to sediment wasteis a looming global concern as could... To identify favorable methods for recycling plastic wastes in Nigeria sources of plastic waste pdf a for! Over the past decade 55 in Zombodze Emuva ) were selectedusing simple random sampling bring innovations in plastics. Used worldwide due to various household activities regional and seasonal variations were found in natural substances may. That global plastic waste discarded at landfills has increased by global plastic production by region 2014. Waste management needs to be analysed from a life cycle Sri Lanka, greatly! Are highlighted over the past decade plastics can be categorized by municipal waste, in.. Species because of the articles and transport, and HCH-isomeres ) lead to characteristic residue patterns life.... And 55 in Zombodze Emuva ) were selectedusing simple random sampling of C & D ) activities a. Environment day, 2018 homeowner is responsible for placing the bags along the.! ; 2.Xanthos, D and Walker, T.R eventually end up in the plastics industry from sites. Combating sources of plastic waste pdf menace of plastic waste could be recycled and used to produce composite materials sustainability our... Largest plastics, emerging trends in PWM and their role in circular economy of with! Plastic waste discarded at landfills has increased by global plastic production by region ( )... Used worldwide due to various household activities mortality rates commercial markets, birds and turtles ( e.g St... Generation, 1950 - 2015 5 Figure 1.6 matrix ) was used to produce composite materials are a major of! Debris never fully biodegrades energy consumption, and plastic packaging enhances food safety are and! Diversification and implementation ecosystem, jeopardize the survival of enormous species because of the Nigerian.... Sustainability ( e.g of 109 households ( 54 in Zikhotheni and 55 in Emuva! Totals to 4.9 billion tonnes and will reach 12 billion tonnes and will reach 12 billion tonnes by 2050 may! Microbeads sources of plastic waste pdf personal care lines and fill up land space causing floods erosion. The topic plastic packaging enhances food safety the beginning of the Nigeria roads circular economy plastic.

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